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    2022年新疆成人高考高起點(diǎn)英語(yǔ)書(shū)面表達復習指導

    文章來(lái)源: 新疆成考網(wǎng) 發(fā)布時(shí)間: 2021-10-21 15:36作者: admin瀏覽量: 96
    2022年新疆成人高考高起點(diǎn)英語(yǔ)書(shū)面表達復習指導 研習 “沒(méi)有規矩,不成方圓?!睂τ谝话阌⒄Z(yǔ)學(xué)習者而言,寫(xiě)出優(yōu)秀的文章有賴(lài)于后天習得,但并不意味著(zhù)機械背誦、生吞活剝。

          2022年新疆成人高考高起點(diǎn)英語(yǔ)書(shū)面表達復習指導

      研習

      “沒(méi)有規矩,不成方圓?!睂τ谝话阌⒄Z(yǔ)學(xué)習者而言,寫(xiě)出優(yōu)秀的文章有賴(lài)于后天習得,但并不意味著(zhù)機械背誦、生吞活剝,或者照搬照抄、人云亦云。所謂研習,需要有獨立思考和個(gè)人的判斷,本著(zhù)“他山之石,可以攻玉”的精神,汲取文章的精華部分加以研究。研習主要側重兩個(gè)方面,包括文章章法和語(yǔ)言表達。文章章法指文章的行文思路、布局謀篇、結構安排、邏輯順序。許多學(xué)習者面對一個(gè)話(huà)題,可能存在兩種不同的困惑,一是下筆千言,但離題萬(wàn)里;二是思緒萬(wàn)千,卻無(wú)從落筆。導致兩種困惑的根源皆在于欠缺思考問(wèn)題、組織思路的恰當方式,以至于文章不得要領(lǐng)、章法紊亂。這就要求我們從全篇脈絡(luò )角度多研習范文,之后領(lǐng)悟如何以演繹法行文、怎樣用歸納法謀篇以及如何圍繞特定話(huà)題拓展思路等等。此外,研習還要側重于語(yǔ)言表達,包括遣詞造句和句子、段落之間的各種銜接手段,以期在自己日后的寫(xiě)作中派上用場(chǎng),因為英文寫(xiě)作皆通一理。只有善于借鑒,勤加研究,才會(huì )借他人的優(yōu)勢和長(cháng)處,提高自己的寫(xiě)作水平。

      背誦

      背誦是提高寫(xiě)作的又一有效途徑。要學(xué)好寫(xiě)作,首先要處理好語(yǔ)言輸入與輸出之間的關(guān)系。前者是后者的前提條件。如果頭腦空空如也,就根本談不上寫(xiě)出像模像樣的文章。只有讀過(guò)大量東西,并且有意識地將其中精彩部分儲存于記憶之中(commit the highlights to memory),才能保證下筆流暢、文通字順。因此,背誦對于寫(xiě)作極為重要。但背誦不是機械記憶,而是有選擇性的背誦,是有意義的記憶。因為機械背誦的結果要么是記憶很快就蕩然無(wú)存、了無(wú)痕跡,要么是無(wú)法活學(xué)活用、付諸實(shí)踐。背誦包括五個(gè)方面:重點(diǎn)詞匯、常用套語(yǔ)、精彩句子、優(yōu)秀段落、經(jīng)典篇章。

      重點(diǎn)詞匯

      美妙的用詞及搭配皆在此列,像fall victim(受害),stand a fair chance(大有希望)這種地道的動(dòng)賓搭配要勤加記憶。為了積累寫(xiě)作詞匯,應將文中同屬一個(gè)話(huà)題的用詞匯總歸納,組成主題詞族(topic family)。歸類(lèi)記憶可以使自己日后即寫(xiě)即用,得心應手。下文是一篇闡釋愛(ài)心的優(yōu)秀文章,多處用詞精巧,現將文中關(guān)于愛(ài)心這一主題的詞匯總結如下:

      emotional strength 情感的力量

      the noblest of human emotions 人類(lèi)最高尚的情感

      no thought of gain 不計得失

      the lamp of love 愛(ài)心之燈

      help the victims of natural disasters 支援自然災害受害者

      donate whatever they can 傾囊相助

      help their needy fellow citizens 幫助有需要的同胞

      be ready to give a helping hand 隨時(shí)準備伸出援手

      When we use the word “l(fā)ove”,we do not simply mean an attraction to a person of the opposite sex,which is a very narrow definition of the word. Love is emotional strength,which can support us no matter how dark the world around us becomes. In fact,throughout history people of many different cultures have regarded love as the noblest of human emotions.

      As an example of the power of love,we should remember how the Chinese people of all nationalities respond to the call to help the victims of natural disasters every year. Although their incomes are still low by international standards,people all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can ― be it money or goods ― to help their needy fellow citizens. Moreover,they do this with no thought of gain for themselves.

      In my opinion,the best way to show love is to help people who are more unfortunate than we are. We should always be ready to give a helping hand to those who are in trouble,no matter whether they are family members or complete strangers. In this way,we can help to make the world a better place,for the darker the shadows of sorrow become,the more brightly the lamp of love shines.

      當我們用“愛(ài)”這個(gè)詞時(shí),我們不僅僅指異性對一個(gè)人的吸引,這只是對這個(gè)詞非常狹隘的解釋。愛(ài)心是一種情感的力量,不論我們周?chē)氖澜缍嗝春诎?,?ài)心都能支撐我們。事實(shí)上,縱觀(guān)歷史,不同文化背景的人都把愛(ài)看成是人類(lèi)最高尚的情感。

      說(shuō)到愛(ài)心的力量,我們馬上就會(huì )想起每年中國各族人民是如何響應號召支援自然災害受害者的。盡管按照國際標準他們的收入還處于低水平,全國人民毫不猶豫地傾囊相助――不管是錢(qián)還是物――幫助那些有需要的同胞。而且,他們這么做并不考慮自己的得失。

      我認為,表達愛(ài)心的最好方式是幫助比我們更加不幸的人。我們應該隨時(shí)準備向有困難的人伸出援助之手,無(wú)論他們是家庭成員還是素昧平生。這樣,我們就能夠助一臂之力把世界變成一個(gè)更美好的地方,因為,悲傷的陰影越黑暗,愛(ài)心之燈的光芒就越閃亮。

      常用套語(yǔ)

      套語(yǔ)指流行的公式化語(yǔ)言,在寫(xiě)作中適當使用頗有必要。如在商業(yè)信函結尾,期望對方早日回復的表達方式就要遵循套語(yǔ)的基本模式,使表達規范得體。下面試舉幾個(gè)例子:

      Kindly favor us with an early reply. 請早日賜復。

      Your prompt reply will be highly appreciated. 如能及時(shí)回復,將不勝感謝。

      We look forward to hearing from you soon. 早日回復。

      We are expecting your prompt reply. 急盼回復。

      Please have the kindness to answer this letter quickly. 請早日回信。

      Kindly let us have your reply at your earliest convenience. 請在您方便時(shí)盡早賜函。

      We would appreciate it if you could respond right away. 如能即刻回復,將不勝感謝。

      當前流行應試寫(xiě)作模板,即套語(yǔ)的使用貫穿文章始終,為考生提供萬(wàn)能公式型的文章主架,每句表達皆由固定套語(yǔ)框定,考生只要背下套用句型、過(guò)渡詞語(yǔ),在考試中根據特定考題填充具體內容。這種應試策略使寫(xiě)出的文章矯揉造作,生硬刻板,雖可以讓考生及格過(guò)關(guān),但絕對得不到高分。套語(yǔ)的過(guò)多使用不妨可以比作大海中的救生圈,有了它,僅僅可以讓不擅游泳者保全性命,卻無(wú)法自在暢游,一展泳姿。一般而言,套語(yǔ)較為空洞,如使用過(guò)多,文章容易流于空泛,言之無(wú)物。寫(xiě)作宜虛實(shí)結合,形式與內容相統一。下例是一篇比較在家學(xué)習與入校讀書(shū)誰(shuí)優(yōu)誰(shuí)劣的范文,文中巧妙地使用了一些固定句式和過(guò)渡詞語(yǔ),不僅增強了表達效果,而且實(shí)現了形式與內容的統一。

     There are two major arguments that can be made for studying at home. First,as advances in the electronic media have brought the whole world of scholarship into the home via the Internet and educational courses on TV,the classroom is no longer the only place for acquiring knowledge. Second,it is widely held that a person studies better in the familiar surroundings of his own home and when he can arrange his own study time.

      But we must not lose sight of the fact that there are advantages to studying in the classroom,too. Being surrounded by people of roughly the same abilities and interests can be a great stimulus to acquiring knowledge,whereas studying in solitude at home is boring for many people. More importantly,there can be no substitute for a good teacher,who must not only be able to impart facts and theories,but also to appraise and encourage his students.

      Given the choice between these two methods of learning,I prefer the classroom. This is because I am the sort of person who finds it difficult to concentrate on study in the midst of household chores,and disturbances from visitors and telephone calls. The classroom environment,I feel,is the only one in which most people feel comfortable applying all their energies to the all-important task of acquiring knowledge.

      關(guān)于在家學(xué)習,我們可以提出兩個(gè)主要論點(diǎn)。第一,由于電子媒體方面取得的進(jìn)步把整個(gè)世界的知識通過(guò)互聯(lián)網(wǎng)和電視上的教育課程帶入了家庭,教室不再是惟一獲取知識的場(chǎng)所。第二,人們普遍認為,在自己家里這樣熟悉的環(huán)境中,并且能自己安排學(xué)習時(shí)間,一個(gè)人能學(xué)得更好。

      但是,我們不能忽視在教室里學(xué)習也有好處這一事實(shí)。周?chē)际悄芰ο嘟团d趣相投的人可能會(huì )對獲取知識形成巨大的刺激,而對很多人來(lái)說(shuō)孤獨一人在家學(xué)習會(huì )有些枯燥乏味。更重要的是,沒(méi)有什么可以替代一個(gè)好老師,他不僅能夠傳道授業(yè),而且能夠評估并鼓勵學(xué)生。

      如果在兩種學(xué)習方法中選擇,我更喜歡在教室里學(xué)習,因為我是那種很難在家務(wù)瑣事、客人、電話(huà)的打擾下集中注意力學(xué)習的人。我認為大多數人只有在教室里才能把全部精力放在獲取知識這件十分重要的工作上。

      精彩句子

      精彩句子指文章中句式優(yōu)美、蘊含哲理的句子。精彩句子的背誦有助于寫(xiě)作時(shí)的引用和模仿。如在閱讀美國前總統約翰·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)的就職演說(shuō)(Inaugural Address)時(shí),可以記住諸如“Ask not what your country can do for you,ask what you can do for your country. ”(不要問(wèn)國家能為你做什么,而要問(wèn)你能為國家做什么。)這樣的傳世佳句,當你寫(xiě)關(guān)于愛(ài)國(patriotism)主題的作文時(shí),則可以適時(shí)引用?,F仍以上面談“愛(ài)心”的文章為例,其中值得背誦的句子為數不少。摘錄如下:

     ?、貺ove is emotional strength,which can support us no matter how dark the world around us becomes.

      愛(ài)心是情感的力量,不論我們周?chē)氖澜缍嗝春诎?,?ài)心都能支撐我們。

     ?、赑eople all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can ― be it money or goods ― to help their needy fellow citizens.

      全國人民毫不猶豫地傾囊相助――不管是錢(qián)還是物――幫助那些有需要的同胞。

     ?、跿he best way to show love is to help people who are more unfortunate than we are.

      表達愛(ài)心的最好方式是幫助比我們更加不幸的人。

     ?、躎he darker the shadows of sorrow become,the more brightly the lamp of love shines.

      悲傷的陰影越黑暗,愛(ài)心之燈的光芒就越閃亮。

      優(yōu)秀段落

      閱讀時(shí),我們經(jīng)常會(huì )碰到一些過(guò)目難忘的段落。這些段落或者表達流暢、文筆優(yōu)美,或者邏輯縝密、結構嚴謹。根據表達需要,有不同的功能段落,如現象說(shuō)明段、觀(guān)點(diǎn)陳述段、原因列舉段、利弊解釋段、結論歸納段、趨勢預測段、措施建議段等。有些優(yōu)秀段落可以作為寫(xiě)作的功能段落加以背誦,對于我們拓展思路、規范行文大有裨益。在背誦過(guò)程中,熟練掌握各種功能段落的行文規則,自己在表達時(shí)就能駕輕就熟。下面僅舉觀(guān)點(diǎn)陳述段和措施建議段各一例。

      觀(guān)點(diǎn)陳述段(陳述“民族文化應該成為世界文化”的觀(guān)點(diǎn))

      A culture of one nation may become international,which is beneficial for all mankind. Since China has opened its doors widely to the outside world,many people from different countries want to visit China. They will come to accept and love Chinese culture as a whole. In addition,Chinese culture should be shared generously with foreign people,who show great interest in it. Meanwhile,as more and more foreigners come to China,they bring aspects of their own culture to share with the Chinese people. In this way,people from various nations in the world will be able to acquire a better understanding of each other and live peacefully together.

      一個(gè)國家的文化可能成為世界文化,這對全人類(lèi)都有益。由于中國已經(jīng)向外界敞開(kāi)了國門(mén),許多來(lái)自不同國家的人都希望來(lái)看一看中國。他們會(huì )開(kāi)始接受并喜歡整個(gè)中國文化,中國文化應該大大方方地讓感興趣的外國人分享。與此同時(shí),隨著(zhù)來(lái)中國的外國人越來(lái)越多,他們也把他們自己的文化帶給了中國人。這樣,世界各國的人們就能夠更好地相互理解、和平相處。

      措施建議段(建議“人口老齡化”的解決措施)

      The rapidity of the population's aging has made it more urgent for the adoption of countermeasures. No doubt, the key is to build a solid economic foundation. Meanwhile,importance should be attached to overall social progress by changing the backward situation in social security,welfare and service. What's more,family care and community services should also be encouraged.

      人口老齡化的加速使采取應對措施變得更為緊迫。毫無(wú)疑問(wèn),解決問(wèn)題的關(guān)鍵是建立穩固的經(jīng)濟基礎。與此同時(shí),應該重視整體的社會(huì )進(jìn)步,改變社會(huì )保障、福利和服務(wù)的落后局面。除此之外,應該鼓勵家庭照料和社區服務(wù)。

      經(jīng)典篇章

      古往今來(lái),英語(yǔ)寶庫中涌現出大批經(jīng)典佳作,如林肯的《葛底斯堡演說(shuō)》(The Gettysburg Address),??思{的諾貝爾獎演說(shuō)(Banquet Speech),海倫·凱勒的《給我三天光明》(Three Days to See)。這些文章在文字的運用上技法高超,在思想內涵上寓意深刻,讀來(lái)字字珠璣,文字優(yōu)美,啟迪心智,含義雋永(full of exquisite words and truth, satisfying the mind,appealing to the heart)。這樣的文章如不能熟讀成誦,則無(wú)法融會(huì )貫通。背誦一定數量的經(jīng)典名篇既有助于提高自己遣詞造句的能力,也有助于加強自己表達思想的深度。下面的一篇短文是英國哲學(xué)家羅素(Bertrand Russell)自傳的序言部分,題為What I Have Lived For(我的人生追求),概述了作者一生追求的三種理想,文章在語(yǔ)言和思想兩個(gè)方面都堪稱(chēng)經(jīng)典,值得背誦。

      What I Have Lived For

      Three passions,simple but overwhelmingly strong,have governed my life:the longing for love,the search for knowledge,and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions,like great winds,have blown me hither and thither,in a wayward course,over a deep ocean of anguish,reaching to the very verge of despair.

      I have sought love,first,because it brings ecstasy ― ecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it,next,because it relieves loneliness ― that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it,finally,because in the union of love I have seen,in a mystic miniature,the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought,and though it might seem too good for human life,this is what ― at last ― I have found.

      With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this,but not much,I have achieved.

      Love and knowledge,so far as they were possible,led upward toward the heavens. But always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart. Children in famine,victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people ― a hated burden to their sons,and the whole world of loneliness,poverty,and pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate the evil,but I can't,and I too suffer.

      以上內容是新疆成考網(wǎng)小編整理的2022年新疆成人高考高起點(diǎn)英語(yǔ)書(shū)面表達復習指導,更多新疆成考高起本復習資料請點(diǎn)擊>>新疆成考網(wǎng)高起本英語(yǔ)

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